Cancer occurs when genetic mutations in our cells cause them to multiply uncontrollably and accumulate to form a tumour. Targeted cancer therapies are drugs that stop the spread of cancer by identifying and blocking the genetic changes responsible for the cancer’s growth and progression.
There are currently three different targeted therapies available to women with ovarian cancer. Find out whether you’re eligible and how to access these treatments.
Ovarian cancer drug: Avastin
Avastin (the brand name of the drug Bevacizumab) belongs to a group of treatments called anti-angiogenics. These treatments stop cancer from developing new blood vessels. This restricts the supply of food and oxygen to the cancer, which means it is starved and unable to grow.
In England, Avastin is used to treat first-line ovarian cancer following the standard treatment combination of Carboplatin and Paxitaxol. It is available through the Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) only to patients with advanced ovarian cancer as a maintenance drug, which means it aims to prevent or delay the cancer’s return.
In Scotland, Avastin is available for women with recurrent, platinum resistant ovarian cancer.
You can read about the different side-effects of Avastin here.
PARP inhibitors are a new class of targeted cancer drug that is becoming more common in ovarian cancer treatment.
They can prevent the spread of cancer by stopping a protein called PARP from performing its usual job of helping damaged cells repair themselves. PARP inhibiters can stop (‘inhibit’) this repair process from happening in damaged ovarian cancer cells, which causes the cancer cells to weaken and die.
There are currently two PARP inhibitors available to treat ovarian cancer: olaparib and niraparib.
Ovarian cancer drug: Olaparib
Olaparib (Lynparza®) is used to treat some types of advanced ovarian, Fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer in women with a BRCA1/2 gene mutation following first- or third-line treatment.
Specifically, this means that it can be given to a BRCA positive patient who has either:
- Been diagnosed for the first time with advanced high-grade serous ovarian, Fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer, if they’ve responded to a round of platinum-based chemotherapy; OR
- Been diagnosed for the third time (if they have relapsed twice) with advanced high-grade serous ovarian, Fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer, if they’ve undergone and responded to three or more rounds of platinum-based chemotherapy.
Olaparib is available as a first-line treatment on the NHS to patients in England.
As a third-line treatment, Olaparib is available on the NHS to patients across the UK.
If you have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer and are unsure whether or not you carry a BRCA gene mutation, ask your cancer team about BRCA and genetic testing. You can also find lots of helpful information and guidance on our BRCA Hub.
Olaparib doesn’t cure ovarian cancer but it does prevent its progression. By delaying the spread of the disease, women can feel better and live healthier lives for longer. The increase in time between rounds of chemotherapy, combined with the fact olaparib can be taken in tablet form at home, means fewer trips to the hospital to receive treatment.
Cancer Research UK provides a useful overview of Olaparib which you can read here.
Ovarian cancer drug: Niraparib
Niraparib is used to treat high grade serous non-mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer. It’s available as a maintenance therapy for women who have a platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer, women who have responded to a round of chemotherapy since their cancer returned.
It is available to women regardless of whether they have a BRCA gene mutation or not. Women with and without a BRCA gene mutation are eligible for the drug if they haven’t previously been prescribed a PARP inhibitor as part of their treatment.
Niraparib can be accessed by women across the UK.
Read more about its approval for NHS use and in Northern Ireland here.
Ovarian cancer drug: Rucaparib
Rucaparib (also known as Rubraca) is a new maintenance treatment available to women with relapsed ovarian, Fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer, if their cancer has already responded to platinum-based chemotherapy. It will be available to patients whether or not they carry a BRCA1/2 gene mutation.
It is a twice-daily tablet which helps slow down the progression of cancer and delays the need for further chemotherapy.
Rucaparib was approved by the National Institute for Health Excellence (NICE) through the Cancer Drugs Fund and is available for patients in England. Wales and Northern Ireland are expected to follow suit shortly. The decision to approve the drug in Scotland is currently under consultation.